Introduction to the Critical Care Nursing Program (1.00 CNE)
- Understanding of several characteristics of online content delivery.
- Discuss concepts related to declarative and procedural learning.
- Describe study techniques for successfully completing online courses and for achieving learning outcomes.
- Access and evaluate medical resources on the Interne.
Cardiovascular System (5.50 CNEs):
Anatomy & Physiology and Hemodynamics:
- Identifying the role of circulating blood in meeting cellular needs and maintaining homeostasis.
- Describing the normal structure and function of the cardiovascular system.
- Analyzing the relationship between autonomic nervous system response and cardiovascular function.
- Listing the factors that affect cardiac output and explaining its impact on body perfusion.
- Describing the impact of medications on the autonomic nervous system.
Case Studies and Medications:
- Identifying the various cardiovascular medications, including their indications, contraindications, dosages, and adverse effects.
- Describing procedures and diagnostic tests used in the cardiovascular arena.
- Identifying the signs and symptoms associated with cardiovascular disease.
- Describing common treatments and possible complications associated with cardiovascular care, including post-op complications.
- Identifying risk factors associated with cardiovascular disease.
Acute coronary Syndrome and Heart Disease:
- Identifying cardiovascular risk factors and metabolic syndrome and describing the signs and symptoms of acute coronary syndrome.
- Defining diagnostic criteria for unstable angina, ST-elevation myocardial infarction, and non ST-elevation myocardial infarction.
- Evaluating ECG findings while comparing and contrasting ST segment differences in unstable angina, ST-elevation, and non ST-elevation myocardial infarction.
- Examining the potential complications of acute myocardial infarction.
- Differentiating left and right ventricular failure, as well as medical management of each.
- Discussing hemodynamic principles in the following patient populations: cardiogenic shock secondary to left ventricular failure, right ventricular infarction, papillary muscle rupture, acute ventricular septal defect, pulmonary emboli, and hypovolemic shock.
Heart Disease and Injury
- Identifying the signs and symptoms of carotid and peripheral artery disease and the treatment options for each.
- Identifying coronary revascularization procedures, including less invasive approaches.
- The risk factors for aneurysm formation, differentiating between the types of aneurysms and locations and the treatment options available.
- Identifying the various cardiac structures disorders and complications that may occur.
- Explaining the use of a temporary pacemaker and the indications for an implantable cardioverter defibrillator.
Patient Assessment and Diagnostic Tests
- Recognizing auscultation findings of normal and abnormal heart sounds.
- The ability to assess findings of valvular disease and ventricular septal defects and fluid changes within the heart.
- Completing a pertinent cardiovascular patient history and identifying blood tests that are essential for cardiovascular assessment.
- Comparing the noninvasive tests used to evaluate for cardiovascular dysfunction.
- Discussing invasive cardiovascular tests and interventions.
Endocrine System (2.00 CNEs):
Hormones and Glands
- Describing the anatomy and physiology of the endocrine system, including the function of various hormones and associated physiological effects.
- Comparing the pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, diagnostics, treatment, and nursing care management of a patient with syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone to those of a patient with diabetes insipidus.
- Identifying the etiology and the signs and symptoms of a patient with Cushing’s Syndrome, Addisonian Crisis, pheochromocytoma, and the diagnostics and treatments used for each.
- Identifying the etiology and the signs and symptoms of a patient with hyperthyroid crisis and myxedema coma and the diagnostics and treatments used for each.
- Identifying the etiology and the signs and symptoms of a patient with hypoparathyroidism and the diagnostics and treatments used.
- Recalling that diabetes mellitus is a group of metabolic diseases whose acute and chronic complications can be minimized or prevented through appropriate treatment and management.
- Determining the medication therapy used as an integral treatment intervention in the management of diabetes mellitus of the hospitalized patient.
- Identifying specific protocols and guidelines, established for optimal patient outcomes, for the patient with diabetes.
- Identifying the special care protocols and guidelines that are essential to re-establishing metabolic control of patients' blood sugars.
- Ensuring competent skill levels in the individual with diabetes mellitus in relation to self-care as the foundation for maintaining blood glucose control after hospital discharge.
Gastrointestinal System (1.00 CNEs):
- Demonstrating a systematic approach to GI assessment and describing the diagnostic procedures and pertinent laboratory tests used.
- Identifying abnormal findings associated with inspection, auscultation, percussion, and palpation.
- Distinguishing between the causes and clinical manifestations of upper and lower GI bleeding.
- Describing the clinical manifestations of acute pancreatitis and hepatic failure and identifying the treatment modalities used for management.
- Listing the metabolic responses to injury and illness in the critically ill patient.
Hematology (4.00 CNEs):
Anatomy & Physiology and Red Blood Cell
- Naming the functions of the blood and identifying the cellular components of the hematologic system and their functions, including stem cells, red blood cells, platelets, coagulation factors, plasma, and immunoglobulins.
- Describing the anatomical structures of the hematologic system and their functions, including the bone marrow, liver, and spleen.
- Listing the factors included in the clinical and laboratory assessment of the patient with hematologic disorders and their physical findings.
- Describing the physiology of red blood cells and explaining the disorders of RBCs.
- Identifying the factors included in the clinical assessment with the patient who has anemia and explaining red blood cells indices found in anemic patients; and describing the pathophysiology, laboratory findings, and patient management of iron-deficiency anemia.
- Describing the pathophysiology, laboratory findings, and patient management of sickle cell anemia.
Maintaining Hemostasis and Immune Function
- Describing different components of the immune system and the physical findings and listing the factors included in the clinical assessment of the patient with an immune reaction.
- Describing the clinical presentation, laboratory findings, and patient management issues in the patient with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), thrombocytopenia, and heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT).
- Explaining the coagulation mechanism and the fibrinolytic process and the role it plays in maintaining hemostasis.
- Describing the factors included in the clinical and laboratory assessment of the patient with hematologic disorders, thrombocytopenia, and their physical findings.
- Explaining the pathophysiologic processes resulting in disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) and the clinical presentation, laboratory findings, and patient management issues in the patient with DIC.
- Listing the laboratory results in a complete electrolyte and metabolic panel and explain their clinical significance.
White Blood Cells
- Identifying the different types of white blood cells (WBCs) and the role they play in the body's immune system.
- Differentiating between humoral and cell-mediated immunity.
- Describing the physical findings and listing the factors included in the clinical assessment of the patient with an immune reaction.
- Identifying the etiology, pathophysiology, and care issues with neutropenia and leukocytosis.
Neurology (4.50 CNEs):
Anatomy & Physiology and Assessment
- Naming the primary structures of the central nervous system and describing their functions, including impulse conduction and neurotransmitters.
- Describing the major functions of the neurological system's macrostructures and their locations in the body.
- Explaining the intracranial dynamics of the neurological system including the Monroe-Kellie hypothesis and intracranial pressure.
- Identifying types and causes of herniation syndromes.
- Summarizing the steps involved in basic and complex neurological assessment and identifying common diagnostic tests used for neurological assessment and diagnosis including use, data generated, and related nursing protocols.
- Differentiating between epidural and subdural hematomas.
- Describing the causes, diagnosis, treatment, and nursing care for each type of hematoma.
- Classifying intracranial, intraventricular, and subarachnoid hemorrhage, and identifying the causes, diagnosis, treatment, and nursing care for each type of stroke.
- Identifying arteriovenous malformation and describing the causes, treatment, and nursing care.
- Identifying ischemic stroke and describing the causes, treatment, and nursing care.
Brain and Spinal Cord Injuries
- Defining traumatic brain injury and identifying the various types of injury.
- Describing the treatment guidelines for traumatic brain injuries (TBIs), including special nursing care considerations.
- Naming the steps critical to “initial care” for traumatic brain injury victims.
- Identifying the mechanisms and types of spinal cord injuries and differentiating between complete and incomplete functional loss.
- Describing treatment and patient care considerations for patients with spinal cord injuries.
Disease States and Medications
- Understanding seizures and treatment modalities.
- Recognizing CNS infections, causes, and treatments.
- Identifying the various neuromuscular diseases and diagnosis and treatment for each.
- Identifying the various brain tumors and therapeutic treatments available.
- Identifying the various medications utilized in the neuroscience arena.
Pulmonary (5.0 CNEs):
Anatomy & Physiology and Arterial Blood Gases
- Discussing the steps in diffusion and gas exchange.
- Discussing the relationships described by the oxyhemoglobin dissociation curve.
- Describing factors that affect the work of breathing and the clinical implications of normal and abnormal ABG values.
- Discussing compensation mechanisms for pH imbalances.
- Describing ABG test processes and interpretation.
Assessment and Airway management
- Explaining the process of assessing the pulmonary system, elaborating on the components of inspection, palpation, percussion, and auscultation, and discussing the importance of medical history as the bedside inspection is initiated.
- Describing the process of chest auscultation and the implications of misplaced breath sounds.
- Listing the four changes that occur in the respiratory system as a result of aging.
- Describing the requirements for normal oxygenation and the signs and symptoms of oxygen deprivation.
- Describing four oxygen delivery devices and the criteria/parameters for each.
- Explaining two assistive/correction actions for airway obstruction.
Ventilation and Chest Tubes
- The three interventions that assist in the prevention of ventilator-associated pneumonia.
- Differentiating between high-pressure and low-pressure alarms as well as circumstances when they occur.
- Describing how positive pressure ventilation can affect several body systems functions.
- Describing appropriate suctioning techniques and supplies necessary for the process.
- Describing indications for chest tube placement and chest drainage systems utilized.
- Explaining the appropriate maintenance techniques and troubleshooting activities for chest tubes and the two indications for chest tube clamping and the guidelines utilized.
- Calculating the V/Q ratio and the PaO2/FiO2 ratio.
- Identifying the pathology, etiology, and clinical presentation for a patient with acute respiratory failure.
- Describing the physical findings and factors included in the clinical assessment of the patient with acute respiratory distress syndrome and the treatment, therapy, and medications used in patient treatment.
- Describing the physical findings and list the factors included in the clinical assessment of the patient with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma and identifying the various medications and therapies used in patient treatment.
- Identifying the signs and symptoms of pneumonia, pulmonary emboli, and lung cancer, and treatment options for each.
Renal System (2.00 CNEs):
Anatomy & Physiology and Assessment
- Differentiating between the macro and microstructures of the kidney and the role of the kidney in arterial blood pressure regulation.
- Describing the physiology involved in urine formation and the maintenance of acid-base, fluid, and electrolyte balances.
- Identifying patient symptoms, treatment, and care issues with fluid and electrolyte imbalances.
- Discussing the endocrine functions of the kidney and your ability to recognize normal and abnormal laboratory tests results.
- Explaining the patient preparation and care protocols specific to common laboratory and diagnostic procedures.
Abnormalities and Treatment
- Differentiating the etiologies of pre-, intra-, and postrenal failure.
- Compare and contrast acute renal failure and chronic renal failure.
- Discussing treatment modalities/options for patients with renal failure.
- Identifying appropriate care techniques and nutritional concerns for patients with renal abnormalities.
- Verbalizing your understanding of pharmacokinetics as they relate to patients with renal insufficiency/failure.
Multisystem Failure (2.00 CNEs):
- Differentiating between normal and abnormal perfusion as it relates to pipes (arteries/veins) and the pump (the heart).
- Classifying the different stages of any shock state.
- Identifying the cascade of events during the progressive shock stage.
- Recalling from previous courses the principles of cardiac output, renal compensation mechanisms, and blood-clotting responses that are affected during the irreversible stage of shock.
- Explaining the nature and complications of sepsis, severe sepsis, and septic shock.
Shock Class and Treatment
- Describing the intrinsic and extrinsic factors as well as the collaborative treatment goals for a patient with shock.
- Identifying the cause, presentation, diagnosis, and treatment for a patient experiencing cardiogenic shock, hypovolemic shock, anaphylactic shock, and neurogenic shock.
- Identifying the cause, presentation, and treatment for a patient experiencing septic shock.