Introduction to the Critical Care Nursing Program (1.00 CNE)
- Understanding of several characteristics of online content delivery.
- Discuss concepts related to declarative and procedural learning.
- Describe study techniques for successfully completing online courses and for achieving learning outcomes.
- Access and evaluate medical resources on the Interne.
Cardiovascular System (5.50 CNEs):
Anatomy & Physiology and Hemodynamics:
- Identify the role of circulating blood in meeting cellular needs and maintaining homeostasis.
- Describe the normal structure and function of the cardiovascular system.
- Analyze the relationship between autonomic nervous system response and cardiovascular function.
- List the factors that affect cardiac output and explain its impact on body perfusion.
- Describe the impact of medications on the autonomic nervous system.
Case Studies and Medications:
- Identify the various cardiovascular medications, including their indications, contraindications, dosages, and adverse effects.
- Describe procedures and diagnostic tests used in the cardiovascular arena.
- Identify the signs and symptoms associated with cardiovascular disease.
- Describe common treatments and possible complications associated with cardiovascular care, including post-op complications.
- Identify risk factors associated with cardiovascular disease.
Acute coronary Syndrome and Heart Disease:
- Identify cardiovascular risk factors and metabolic syndrome.
- Identify signs and symptoms of acute coronary syndrome.
- Identify diagnostic criteria for unstable angina, STEMI (ST-elevation myocardial infarction), and NSTEMI (Non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction).
- Discuss ECG findings while comparing and contrasting ST segment differences in unstable angina, STEMI, and NSTEMI.
- Discuss the evidence-based practice medical/nursing management for care of the acute coronary syndrome patient.
- Discuss the potential complications of acute myocardial infarction.
- Differentiate left and right ventricular failure, as well as medical management of each.
- Discuss hemodynamic principles in the following patient populations: cardiogenic shock secondary to left ventricular failure, right ventricular infarction, papillary muscle rupture, acute ventricular septal defect, pulmonary emboli, and hypovolemic shock.
Heart Disease and Injury
- Identify the signs and symptoms of carotid artery disease and peripheral artery disease and treatment options for each.
- Identify coronary revascularization procedures, including less invasive approaches.
- Discuss risk factors for aneurysm formation; differentiate between the types of aneurysms and locations, and the treatment options available.
- Identify the various cardiac structures disorders and complications that may occur.
- Explain the use of a temporary pacemaker and the indications for an implantable cardioverter defibrillator.
Patient Assessment and Diagnostic Tests
- Recognize auscultation findings of normal and abnormal heart sounds.
- Assess findings of valvular disease and ventricular septal defects.
- Assess findings of fluid changes within the heart.
- Complete a pertinent cardiovascular patient history.
- Describe blood tests that are essential to the cardiovascular assessment.
- Compare the noninvasive tests used to evaluate for cardiovascular dysfunction.
- Discuss invasive cardiovascular tests and interventions.
Endocrine System (2.00 CNEs):
Hormones and Glands
- Describe the anatomy and physiology of the endocrine system, including the function of various hormones and associated physiological effects.
- Compare the pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, diagnostics, treatment, and nursing care management of a patient with syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone to those of a patient with diabetes insipidus.
- Identify the etiology and the signs and symptoms of a patient with Cushing's syndrome and describe the diagnostics and treatments used.
- Identify the etiology and the signs and symptoms of a patient with a pheochromocytoma and describe the diagnostics and treatments used.
- Identify the etiology and the signs and symptoms of a patient with hyperthyroid crisis and myxedema coma and describe the diagnostics and treatments used for each.
- Identify the etiology and the signs and symptoms of a patient with hypoparathyroidism and describe the diagnostics and treatments used.
- Recall that diabetes mellitus is a group of metabolic diseases whose acute and chronic complications can be minimized or prevented through appropriate treatment and management.
- Determine the medication therapy used as an integral treatment intervention in the management of diabetes mellitus of the hospitalized patient.
- Identify specific protocols and guidelines, established for optimal patient outcomes, for the patient with diabetes.
- Identify the special care protocols and guidelines that are essential to re-establishing metabolic control of patients’ blood sugars.
- Ensure the individual with diabetes mellitus has a competent skill level, with self-care as the foundation for maintaining blood glucose control after hospital discharge.
Gastrointestinal System (1.00 CNEs):
- Present a systematic approach to GI assessment.
- Present the circulatory system and the nervous system's role in the GI function.
- Identify abnormal findings associated with inspection, auscultation, percussion, and palpation.
- Describe diagnostic procedures and pertinent laboratory tests used in the assessment of the GI system.
- Distinguish between the causes and clinical manifestations of upper and lower GI bleeding.
- Describe the clinical manifestations of acute pancreatitis and hepatic failure.
- Identify the treatment modalities used in the management of acute pancreatitis and hepatic failure.
- List the metabolic responses to injury and illness in the critically ill patient.
- Review considerations and strategies required in meeting the nutritional needs of critically ill patients.
Hematology (4.00 CNEs):
Anatomy & Physiology and Red Blood Cell
- Name the functions of the blood.
- Describe the anatomical structures of the hematologic system and their functions, including the bone marrow, liver, and spleen.
- Identify the cellular components of the hematological system and their functions, including stem cells, red blood cells, platelets, coagulation factors, plasma, and immunoglobulins.
- List the factors included in the clinical and laboratory assessment of the patient with hematologic disorders and their physical findings.
- Describe the physiology of red blood cells and explain the disorders of RBCs.
- Identify the factors included in the clinical assessment with the patient who has anemia and explain red blood cells indices found in anemic patients.
- Describe the pathophysiology, laboratory findings, and patient management of iron-deficiency anemia.
- Describe the pathophysiology, laboratory findings, and patient management of sickle cell anemia.
Maintaining Hemostasis and Immune Function
- The blood has multiple structures and complex functions.
- The role of red blood cells is critical to patient health.
- Disorders of RBCs can manifest as anemia or erythrocytosis.
- The role and number of white blood cells (WBCs) has critical impact on patient health.
- Disorders of WBCs can manifest as neutropenia or leukocytosis.
- An intact immune system is regulated by humoral and cell-mediated immunity and is critical for continued health.
- There are several unhealthy states that arise from hematologic disorders; each of these has specific signs, symptoms, and treatment.
White Blood Cells
- Identify the different types of white blood cells (WBCs) and the role they play in the body's immune system.
- Differentiate between humoral and cell-mediated immunity.
- Describe the physical findings.
- List the factors included in the clinical assessment of the patient with an immune reaction.
- Identify the etiology, pathophysiology, and care issues with neutropenia and leukocytosis.
Neurology (4.50 CNEs):
Anatomy & Physiology and Assessment
- Name the microstructures of the neurological system and describe their functions, including impulse conduction and neurotransmitters.
- List the macrostructures of the neurological system and identify their locations in the body.
- Describe the major functions of the neurological system's macrostructures.
- Explain the intracranial dynamics of the neurological system including the Monroe-Kellie hypothesis and auto-regulation of intracranial pressure.
- Identify types and causes of herniation syndromes.
- Summarize the steps involved in basic and complex neurological assessment.
- Identify common diagnostic tests used for neurological assessment and diagnosis including use, data generated, and related nursing protocols.
Brain and Spinal Cord Injuries
- Define traumatic brain injury and identify the various types of injury.
- Describe the treatment guidelines for traumatic brain injuries (TBIs), including special nursing care considerations.
- Name the steps critical to "initial care" for TBI victims.
- Identify the mechanisms and types of spinal cord injuries.
- Differentiate between complete and incomplete functional loss.
- Describe treatment and patient care considerations for patients with spinal cord injuries.
Disease States and Medications
- Understand seizure and treatment modalities.
- Recognize CNS infections, causes, and treatments.
- Identify the various neuromuscular diseases, and diagnosis and treatment for each.
- Identify the various brain tumors and therapeutic treatments available.
- Identify the various medications utilized in the neuroscience arena.
Pulmonary (5.0 CNEs):
Anatomy & Physiology and Arterial Blood Gases
- Describe the anatomy and physiology of the respiratory system.
- Discuss the mechanisms that control respiration.
- Discuss the steps in diffusion and gas exchange.
- Discuss the relationships described by the oxyhemoglobin dissociation curve.
- Describe factors that affect the work of breathing.
- Discuss the clinical implications of normal and abnormal ABG values.
- Discuss compensation mechanisms for pH imbalances.
- Describe ABG test processes and interpretation.
Assessment and Airway management
- Explain the process of assessing the pulmonary system, elaborating on the components of inspection, palpation, percussion, and auscultation.
- Discuss the importance of medical history as the bedside inspection is initiated.
- Describe the process of chest auscultation and the implications of misplaced breath sounds.
- List four changes that occur in the respiratory system as a result of aging.
- Describe the requirements for normal oxygenation, and list the signs and symptoms of oxygen deprivation.
- Describe four oxygen delivery devices and the criteria/parameters for each.
- Explain two assistive/correction actions for airway obstruction.
Ventilation and Chest Tubes
- Explain various modes of ventilation.
- List three interventions that assist in the prevention of ventilator-associated pneumonia.
- Differentiate between high pressure and low pressure alarms as well as circumstances when they occur.
- Describe how positive pressure ventilation can affect several body system functions.
- Describe appropriate suctioning technique and supplies necessary for the process.
- Describe indications for chest tube placement and chest drainage systems utilized.
- Explain appropriate maintenance techniques and troubleshooting activities for chest tubes.
- List two indications for chest tube clamping and the guidelines utilized.
- Calculate the V/Q ratio and the PaO2/FiO2 ratio.
- Identify the pathology, etiology, and clinical presentation for a patient with acute respiratory failure.
- Describe the physical findings and list the factors included in the clinical assessment of the patient with acute respiratory distress syndrome.
- List treatment, therapy, and medications used in the treatment of a patient with acute respiratory distress syndrome.
- Describe the physical findings and list the factors included in the clinical assessment of the patient with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma.
- Identify the various medications and therapies used in the treatment of a patient with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma.
- Identify the signs and symptoms of pneumonia, pulmonary emboli, and lung cancer, and treatment options for each.
Renal System (2.00 CNEs):
Anatomy & Physiology and Assessment
- Differentiate between the macro and microstructures of the kidney.
- Describe the role of the kidney in arterial blood pressure regulation.
- Explain the physiology involved in urine formation, maintaining acid-base, fluid, and electrolyte balances.
- Identify patient symptoms, treatment, and care issues with fluid and electrolyte imbalances.
- Discuss the kidney's endocrine functions.
- Recognize various laboratory tests and identify their strengths for renal evaluation.
- Explain the patient preparation and care protocols specific to common laboratory and diagnostic procedures.
Abnormalities and Treatment
- Differentiate etiologies of pre, intra, and post renal failure.
- Compare and contrast acute renal failure and chronic renal failure.
- Discuss treatment modalities/options for patients with renal failure.
- Identify appropriate care techniques and nutritional concerns for patients with renal abnormalities.
- Verbalize an understanding of pharmacokinetics as they relate to patients with renal insufficiency/failure.
Multisystem Failure (2.00 CNEs):
- Differentiate between normal and abnormal perfusion as it relates to pipes (arteries/veins) and the pump (the heart).
- Classify the different phases of any shock state.
- Identify the cascade of events during the progressive shock phase.
- Recall from previous courses the principles of cardiac output, renal compensation mechanisms, and blood clotting responses that are affected during the refractory phase of shock.
- Explain the nature and complications of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS).
Shock Class and Treatment
- Describe the intrinsic and extrinsic factors as well as the collaborative treatment goals for a patient with shock.
- Identify the cause, presentation, diagnosis, and treatment for a patient experiencing cardiogenic shock.
- Identify the cause, presentation, and treatment for a patient experiencing hypovolemic shock.
- Identify the cause, presentation, and treatment for a patient experiencing anaphylactic shock.
- Identify the cause, presentation, and treatment for a patient experiencing neurogenic shock.
- Identify the cause, presentation, and treatment for a patient experiencing septic shock.